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In the modern ocean marine biodiversity increases from the poles to the equator in a predictable latitudinal gradient. It is recognized that temperature plays a first order role in this pattern, as thermodynamic effects on metabolism result in population diversity scaling unidirectionally with temperature. However, evidence from the paleontological record suggests that biodiversity has peaked at higher latitudes in the past. I am working in collaboration with other researchers to combine data and theory from the paleontological record, global climate models, and physiological metabolic experiments to investigate how environmental temperature has driven global and regional diversity over the last 150 million years.